King 747-716 BC.
Piankhy was the ruler of a kingdom which developed to the south of Egypt, with its capital situated at Napata. These people worshipped the Egyptian god Amen-Re and preserved many elements of the Egyptian culture of the Eighteenth Dynasty, and there has been some discussion of their possible origins; although some may have been descendants of priests of Amen-Re, who perhaps emigrated southwards, the later population undoubtedly also incorporated local elements.Piankhy was the son of the Napatan chieftain or king, Kashta, and the brother of *Shabako. During the Twenty-second and Twenty-third Dynasties, Egypt was ruled by a number of princelings, and one—Tefnakht, Prince of Sais—attempted to expand southwards as far as Lisht. Piankhy, to prevent further advances by Tefnakht and also perhaps to re-establish some order in the homeland of his revered god, Amen-Re, marched northwards to attack these Libyan rulers of the Twenty-second and Twenty-third Dynasties.Manetho does not mention Piankhy, but a huge stela dating to Year 21 of Piankhy's reign, refers to his great campaign in c.730 BC. The inscription not only relates his prowess as a warrior, his capture of the cities of Egypt, and the resultant slaughter and capture of prisoners, but also emphasises his great piety regarding the Egyptian gods, particularly Amen-Re. Although it is evident that Egypt was divided into many principalities, Piankhy appears to have conquered the south and received submission from the northern rulers. After this great victory, Piankhy returned to his own kingdom and the local princes resumed their rulership in Egypt, with Tefnakht's descendants forming the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. Piankhy was buried in the south at Kurru, in the first true pyramid to be built there (many years after theEgyptian rulers themselves had ceased to use pyramids). His successor, *Shabako, returned to campaign in Egypt (715 BC) and to remove Tefnakht's successor, Bakenranef; he ultimately established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and his daughter, Shepenopet II, was adopted as the Divine Wife of Amun.BIBL. Von Zeissl, H. Athiopen und Assyrer in Agypten. Gluckstadt: 1944; Kitchen, K A 3rd Int. pp 363 ff; Dunham, D. El Kurru. Cambridge: 1950.Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt by Rosalie and Antony E. David* * *See Piye.Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier
Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. EdwART. 2011.